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英语四级新题型考试应对:如何高效的浏览文章

2021-05-21 01:38 次浏览

在文章的浏览(即略读,skimming)过程中,对文中信息重要性的判断可以帮助读者快速有效地了解段落的大意。在浏览过程中,读者可以通过寻找“信号词”来区分重要信息和非重要信息。以下列出的是阅读过程中常见的几类“信号词”。

 

1.以下词组提示下文所涉及的重要信息:

The main / important point / conclusion / reason….

  The point to note here…

  2.以下词组提示了下文的结构框架:

  There are three major reasons…

  3.but 和 however表示对比,常常用来提示重要信息,例如:

  The rising birth rate is not due to increased fertility, but to a sharp decline in the death rate.

  4.在文中提问可以突出问题后的答案,提示读者答案中有重要信息,例如:

  Why is a piped water supply so important? Disease due to contaminated water is a common cause of death in childhood.

  5.有时,为了保证读者完全理解自己的观点,作者会在文中反复提出自己的观点,例如:

  Death control can be achieved autonomously1. In other words, the death rate can be cut without anything else changing.

  6.文章的结论通常是非常重要的,因此,读者要在文中寻找提示结论的“信号词”,例如:

  Thereforethe result

  In conclusionwe can conclude

  One of the primary conclusions

  7.举例是为了帮助读者理解某一个观点,因此,文中的例子不是浏览文章时的重要信息。在阅读过程中,以下词组提示读者下文是举例部分信息。

  For example/instancelike

  Such asthese include

  To illustrateamong these are

  有时,作者也会用破折号或括号来提示举例信息,例如:

  The developing countries are dependent on cash crops – sugar, coffee, cacao, cotton.

  Precipitating/violent/unexpected factors are those which reduce the food supply (droughts, floods, wars, epidemics)…

  在段落浏览时,读者在看到信号词后,应不断对下文信息作出相应的判断,例如:

  The main reason for (提示:下文信息重要) the reduction in the death rate in the developing world has been improved public health measures. For example, (提示:下文信息不重要,仅仅是为了用来证明前面的观点) in Sri Lanka the death rate was halved2 over ten years by spraying the mosquitoes which carry malaria3. Why (提示:问题的答案中有读者应该关注的重点) is it so easy to cut the death rate in this way and yet so hard to reduce the birth rate? One answer (提示:这只是众多答案中的一种,并不是最重要的。) is that public health measures can be very cheap. Anti-malarial spraying is inexpensive. But this is not the important point (提示:but后面的是非常重要的信息). For birth control programmes to be successful, a change in attitude is required, whereas death control can be achieved autonomously. In other words, (提示:这里是作者想要强调的重要信息) the death rate can be cut without anything else changing.


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